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Crop Matrix Tool

Use this tool to find out about characteristics; such as soil pH, cultivation methods, pests and post harvest treatment; for a specific crop. To load a crop's characteristics choose a crop from the drop-down menu. To see a list of all possible crops grouped by category click on the “Show List of All Available Crops” link next to the drop-down menu.

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White oak

Common NameWhite oak
Latin NameQuercus alba
Visual Traits
Floweryellow-green and red, monoecious, early spring to late May, at or shortly after leaves unfold
Foliage/Fall leaf colorburgundy, persist until Jan
Fruit / Nutripen Sep-Oct, turn from green to brown; mature 120days after pollination and drop 25 days later
Height50-80 (100) ft
Other valued traitslumber
Field spacing / planting depthdirect seed 8-10" apart or broadcast and covered with firm layer 1/4"
Pollinationpollen shed to 3days after flowering; best fruit set f weather is dry for 10days during flower period, esp if follwed by cool period
Propagation methodSeed, B+B, Bare Root, low stump spouts, seedling sprouts
Pruningnatural pruning usually sufficient, epicormic branching possible with heavy release
Seed harvestripen Sep-Oct, turn from green to brown; mature 120days after pollination and drop 25 days later
Seed treatment and storageseed moisture contenct must not fall below 30-50%, no treatement necessary
Seedling treatmentrequire 35% canopy light penetration to persist
Sowing seedgerminate upon drop Sep-Oct; root growth continues until cold weather interruption, optimum temperature 50-60?F, loose soil or humus
Transplantspring; not after first year; ball and burlap
Watering guidelinesmoisture not critical at time of germination
Insect and invertebrate pestsmany insect pests, problematic at epidemic levels; wood borers
Pathogensoak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum) destructive, heartrot from fire damage; many disease agents, few threatening
Wildlife Pestsdeer
Compaction (tolerance)extremely sensitive to compaction and grade change
Fertility / qualitywide range
Mineralslimiting only on dry, sandy sites
Moisture and drainageprefers moist, tolerates dry, flood intolerant
Salt tolerancemoderately tolerant
Soils and topographywide range of slopes and aspects, excepting dry or shallow uplands, or poorly drained bottomlands; seldom found above 500ft in northern part of range
Texturewide range; prefers coarse and deep, but natural stands occur on clays and loams
Growth Pattern
Good seed crop interval (fruit load)4-10y, variation among and within stands
Growth rateslow
Root habitdeep taproot and developing more fibrous lateral roots during growth, root grafts common
Seed-bearing age /max production(20) 50y / 200y
Habitat and Climate
Fire toleranceintolerant
Frost-free days (FFD)5-9mos
Hardiness Zone3b-9
Native RangeEastern United States
Rainfall / humiditywide variety of tolerance across range; average 40" in optimum range
Wind / ice / frost susceptibilitymoderately resistant to ice breakage
Light recommendationfull sun
Shade tolerancemoderately shade tolerant, becoming less tolerant with age; responds well to release
Vegetation Associations
Competitive abilitycompetitive, persistent; climax tree
Indicator species and associated forestmixed hardwood, especially oak-hickory upland